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A vikrayapatra recording Bālasundara Thāpā's obtaining of two former slaves of his from Bhairava Siṃ (VS 1889)

ID: E_2824_0044

Edited and translated by Manik Bajracharya
Created: 2017-05-09; Last modified: 2018-06-22
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Published by Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities: Documents on the History of Religion and Law of Pre-modern Nepal, Heidelberg, Germany, 2017. Published by the courtesy of the National Archives, Kathmandu. The copyright of the facsimile remains with the Nepal Rashtriya Abhilekhalaya (National Archives, Government of Nepal). All use of the digital facsimiles requires prior written permission by the copyright holder. See Terms of Use.
The accompanying edition, translation/synopsis and/or commentary are available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License CCby-SA.


This deed officializes Bālasundara Thāpā’s purchase of two slaves whom he had previously owned. The price paid was 101 rupees.

Diplomatic edition









Hail! Written by Bālasundara Thāpā.

Āge: My eldest brother unexpectedly gave-sold the slave boy Ḍambaryā and the slave girl Raṅgī when they [once] went from our own house to the house of Gaṅgāprasāda Giri. We brothers had not gathered [to discuss the matter]. We had neither have any earnest (gaurāi), nor did we institute legal proceedings (jhagarā). Today the slaves have come [back] to stay in our house, [and] Bhairava Siṃ took one hundred one rupees [for them]. I bought [the slaves] after bargaining. This slave boy and slave girl should not be given to Jāgyasvara Giri or Subyānī. If they are given [to them], Bhairava Siṃ should take [the slaves] away bound. I have declared that I will not give [the slaves] to the maṭha. The transaction today has been endorsed (sahi). Whoever alters [the terms of] the matter, will be [considered in the] wrong. Witnesses: Indravira Khatrī, Pratāpa Thāpā [and] Utara Kumāra Thāpā.

Sunday, the 7th of the dark fortnight of Phālguna in the [Vikrama] era year 1889 (1833 CE). Auspiciousness.


The content of this document is confusing. This much seems clear: the eldest brother of Bālasundara Thāpā had sold the two slaves to Gaṅgāprasāda Giri without consent from his brothers, and Bālasundara obtained the slaves back by paying 101 rupees. Bhairava Siṃ is perhaps an authority who apparently had brought the slaves back to Bālasundara, and he has been declared responsible to take the slaves away in case they are ever given back to Jāgyasvara Giri and Subyānī. The identities of Jāgyasvara Giri and Subyānī are not clear. One can assume that they are relatives of Gaṅgāprasāda and that all three have ties to the same maṭha.

This document, even though of pre-Mulukī Ain period, depicts a situation that is covered under Article 81, Section 1 of the Mulukī Ain (MA-KM VS 2022: 352) dealing with a brother's selling of slaves or domestic animals without consulting other brothers.


1. In the left margin. The signature is probably of Bālasundara Thāpā. []