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A note containing an explanation on a grammatical metarule asiddham bahiraṅgam antaraṅge

ID: DNA_0007_0044

Edited and translated by Ramhari Timalsina
Created: 2014-10-06; Last modified: 2021-10-12
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Published by Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities: Documents on the History of Religion and Law of Pre-modern Nepal, Heidelberg, Germany, 2019. Published by the courtesy of the National Archives, Kathmandu. The copyright of the facsimile remains with the Nepal Rashtriya Abhilekhalaya (National Archives, Government of Nepal). All use of the digital facsimiles requires prior written permission by the copyright holder. See Terms of Use.
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This document is a note on explanation of asiddham bahiraṅgam antaraṅge, a metarule of Pāṇinian grammatical system.

Diplomatic edition





In explanation [of the word formation process of grāmaṇinī] with regard to [what comes] after the stem: from the lexeme grāmaṇī the auṅ [element] (au/auṭ) is suffixed, the sūtra napuṃsakāc ca1 substitutes śī for auṅ, and at the stage of grāmaṇī ī the sūtra īko ’ci2 and hrasvo napuṃsake3 are both applicable. In this circumstance, the sūtra iko ’ci vibhaktau, 4 which is nitya (i.e. applying in all cases), is supposed to be applied first, with the augment num being inserted. However, its application cannot take place. If you ask why, it is because the metarule nityād antaraṅgaṃ balīyaḥ5 [applies]. The scholars of the old grammatical tradition have stated that this problem can be resolved by the metarule asiddham bahiraṅgam antaraṅge6 . If you ask how, then listen: The form antaraṅga is doubtless meant [in the sense of] antaraṅge kartavye, [that is] ‘in a context where the antaraṅga operation has applied’. It is only in situations where the preconditions for the bahiraṅga operation are prepared by the application of the antaraṅga operation that the metarule would apply. It has been proposed that in circumstances where the preconditions are met for the application of both the antaraṅga and bahiraṅga operations that the antaraṅga operation is preferred, but the meaning should not be read like that. The proper meaning of the term antaraṅge should be ‘in a context where the antaraṅga operation has already been applied or is to be applied later’. Otherwise a similar situation would exist in the [sūtra] pūrvatrāsiddham, 7 and as a result the [form] manoratha etc. would not be generated [after its application].


This text comments on the grammatical metarule asiddham bahiraṅgam antaraṅge, 8 a metarule greatly utilized in Pāṇinian grammar to govern the rule application system. This note may be an excerpt from some commentary on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara, Siddhāntakaumudī or a similar grammatical text, or else was prepared by some scholar for his personal use. The text mainly explains the meaning of the word antaraṅge in this metarule.


1. Aṣtādhyāyī 7.1.19, see in Böhtlingk 1977: 376. []

2. Aṣtādhyāyī 7.1.73, see in Böhtlingk 1977: 383. []

3. Aṣtādhyāyī 1.2.47, see in Böhtlingk 1977: 17. []

4. Aṣtādhyāyī 7.1.73, see in Böhtlingk 1977: 383. []

5. Paribhāṣenduśekhara 38, see in Abhyankar 1967: 375. []

6. Paribhāṣenduśekhara 50, see in Abhyankar 1967: 376. []

7. Aṣtādhyāyī 8.2.1, see in Böhtlingk 1977: 438. []

8. Paribhāṣenduśekhara 50, see in Abhyankar 1967: 376. []