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A loan agreement involving a slave put up as collateral (VS 1976)

ID: K_0281_0045


Edited and translated by Manik Bajracharya in collaboration with Raju Rimal
Created: 2017-02-28; Last modified: 2018-06-19
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Published by Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities: Documents on the History of Religion and Law of Pre-modern Nepal, Heidelberg, Germany, 2017. Published by the courtesy of the National Archives, Kathmandu. The copyright of the facsimile remains with the Nepal Rashtriya Abhilekhalaya (National Archives, Government of Nepal). All use of the digital facsimiles requires prior written permission by the copyright holder. See Terms of Use.
The accompanying edition, translation/synopsis and/or commentary are available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License CCby-SA.

Abstract

This is a deed recording a loan of 142 rupees by Vīra Bāhādura to Lāl Bāhādura Khatrī Chetrī. A male slave is offered as security.



Diplomatic edition

[1r]

1श्रीः\­

1⟪१५७­नं­⟫

1स्ही­लाल्‌वा
2हादुर­षत्री­
3छेत्री­

1साछी­

1स्ही:­दांन्‌­वाहादुर­ष
2त्री­छेत्री­
¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯१­

1स्ही­हीरा­सीं­थापा­छेत्री­¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯१­

1 [Fingerprint] वीर­षत्री­छेत्री­¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯१­

1अभय­सीं­षत्री­छेत्री­¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯१­

1स्ही:­लेःषत्‌को­म­असा
2मी­लाल्‌­वाहादुर­षत्री­
3छेत्री­सदर­छु­¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯

1स्वस्ति­श्री­सम्वत्­१९७६­साल्‌­मीती­पौष­८­गते­वार­३­मा­सु
2व­दीने­धनीका­नाम­वीर्ता­रस्पुर­गाऊ­वश्ने­वीर­वाहादुर­ष•
3त्री­छेत्री­
धन­वेहोरीनीका­णम­ऐं­गाऊ­वश्ने­लाल्‌­
4वाहादुर­षत्री­छेत्री­गत­ली­चादीका­चलं­सारका­
5मो­रू­१४२­अक्षेरूपी­ये़क­सये­़वय़ालीस्‌­रुपैञा­•
6लीय़ाको­ठीक्‌­साचो­हो­वाफत्‌­दंन्ड­वीसये़मा­हीरा­•
7सीं­थापाले­
तीरीदीय़ाको­हुनाले­नीज­हीरा­सीं­थापाला
8ई­तीर्न­लीय़ाको­हस्वा­रुपैञाको­भाका­करव़र­ये़ही­
9आउन्या­७७­साल्‌का­जेस्‍ठ­मैनाका­दीण­१२­जाहा­
10लेषीय़ाका­रुपैञा­सापटको­सापट­वुझाउला­स्वा­
11भाका­नाघ्ये­भने­:ये़सै­मीतीमा­धीतो­रहेको­रवे­कमारो­
12चार­रत्‌नको­चोसो­भय़ाको­कमारो­आर्को­परम्
13भट्‌टा­नलेषी­ये़सै­कागजको­सदर­गरी­लीनु­•पछी­म
14रे­भाग्ये­मीती­व़ार­मोरे­भाग्ये­नीमेक्‌­कमारो­लेउ­भनी­
15म­आसामीले­नभंनु­मीती­पार­मोरे­भाग्ये­मेरो­कमारो­
16लेउ­रूपैञा­वुझाउ­भनी­नभंनु­•मेरा­मंमा­षुसी­रा
17जीले­दाम्‌­दोहोरी­वुझीलीञा­य़ो­तमसुक­लेषीदी
18य़ाको­साउका­पुर्वतर्फको­दलानमा­लेषीदीय़ाको­
19हो­ये़स­वेहोराका­साछी­फट्केपट्टी­लेषीदीय़ाको­
20छु­•मीती­सदर­शु­¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯

Translation

[1r]

Śrī

Number 1571

[Signature]: Lāl Bāhādura Khatrī Chetrī

Witnesses:

[Signature]: Dān Bāhādura Khatrī Chetrī

[Signature]: Hīrā Siṃ Thāpā Chetrī

[Fingerprint]: Vīra Khatrī Chetrī

Abhaya Siṃ Khatrī Chetrī

[Signature]: I, Lāl Bāhādura Khatrī Chetrī, the debtor of [this] deed, have been approved [as such].

Hail! On the auspicious Monday of the 8th solar day (gate) of Pauṣa in the [Vikrama] era year 1976 (1919 CE), the debtor (dhana behorīnī), Lāl Bāhādura Khatrī Chetrī by name, resident of Raspura Village, has truly received current silver mohara rupaiyās 142 from the creditor (dhanī), Vīra Bāhādura Khatrī Chetrī by name, resident of the same village. I have borrowed this money to repay Hirā Siṃ Thāpā, inasmuch as the latter paid [a similar amount earlier as] the fine for an offence (bāphat) [of mine]. I solemnly promise to return the same amount [of money] as borrowed2 on the 12th of the month of Jyeṣṭha in the coming year [VS 19]77. If this promise is broken, [Vīra Bāhādura] shall take in his ownership, on that same date, the pledged male slave Rave, who possesses the four gems,3 considering this deed as valid [in] itself, without [any need] for a separate paramabhaṭṭā to be written. If [the slave] dies or escapes—[that is,] if he dies or escapes before the [fixed] date—I, the debtor, shall not say: "Give me the value of the labour (nimek) [of the slave] or [the price of] the slave." If he dies or escapes beyond the [promised] date, [the creditor] shall not tell: "Give me my slave [or] pay me the [debt] money." I have gladly and of my own free will received this money. This agreement (tamasuka) was written on the creditor's eastern veranda. I have written down the witnesses to this document in the margin (phaṭke). The [aforementioned] date is valid. Auspiciousness.


Commentary

This document records a loan of money taken out by Lāl Bāhādura from Vīra Bāhādura in a village called Raspura. The identity of this village is unknown. However, since this document was among a bundle of documents from Pyuthana, Raspura is presumably a village in the same general area. The document mentions that the debtor took the loan in order to repay an earlier loan from Hīrā Siṃ Thāpā, who had paid at fine on his behalf for an offence committed earlier.

The document mentions that the debtor has put up his slave Rave as collateral for the loan. The slave would automatically pass to the creditor if the loan was defaulted.

This document can be related to Article 80 of the Mulukī Ain (MA-KM VS 2022) concerning rules regarding the escape of slaves.


Notes

1. Added by a second hand in the upper margin. []

2. The formulation used sāpaṭako sāpaṭa refers that the amount to be returned would be the same as the borrowed amount, without applying any interest. This leads us to the understanding that the slave was a usufructuary pledge, and that his service to the creditor compensated the interest. []

3. The four standard qualities of a trusted slave. []