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A rukkā of the king directing twelve families of Māsau and Kimāḍi villages to operate a hulāka (VS 1864)

ID: DNA_0013_0062

Edited and translated by Manik Bajracharya
Created: 2019-05-21; Last modified: 2020-01-22
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Published by Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities: Documents on the History of Religion and Law of Pre-modern Nepal, Heidelberg, Germany, 2020. Published by the courtesy of the National Archives, Kathmandu. The copyright of the facsimile remains with the Nepal Rashtriya Abhilekhalaya (National Archives, Government of Nepal). All use of the digital facsimiles requires prior written permission by the copyright holder. See Terms of Use.
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This rukkā of King Gīrvāṇayuddha Vikrama Śāha directs twelve families of Māsau and Kimāḍi villages to operate a hulāka and provides them jāgīras in return.

Diplomatic edition



[royal seal]

1स्वस्ति­श्रीमन्महाराजाधिराजकस्य­रुक्का­¯¯ ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯¯
15पर्यो­भन्या­हुलाकमा­षटाय़ाका­घरलाई­भारि­सासना­होला­¯¯ ¯¯






Venerable Durgā

[royal seal]

Hail! [This is] an executive order (rukkā) of the glorious great king.

Āge: [In order to relay] letters dispatched from here along with ones that come from the west, 4 persons from Māsau [supplied] by the households listed [below,] should be present during all eight praharas [and] operate the hulāka [post] at Māsau of Gaḍha. Ambālīs shall not take possession of the house in which the assigned hulākī [porters] live, or their garden or their land. Of the taxes and levies (rakama-kalama) that you have been paying annually at the same rate as the [whole] garkhā1 , [you need only pay] 1 rupee per house. As for the phāgu2 [levy], [pay] two ānās. Both levies amount to a total of 1 rupee and 2 ānās. Other [obligations such as] jhārā, baikara, beṭha and begāra are exempted. As long as one remains on duty for the hulāka, we have granted for each house, on top of the annual cultivating of land, a jāgīra [of a plot of] twenty (bisī)3 of sloppy (vayerāna/oirāna) land in Puḍho from the year [VS 18]60. Operate the hulāka for [relaying] lālamoharas and mail. Mail-relaying hulākīs should not carry the loads of any other wayfarers. If anyone forcibly causes them to carry loads, report this to the amālī or to the [military] company, and have him punished according to the extent of his offence. If in the course of relaying the mail gets held up even for a moment or if a discrepancy occurs, the household assigned will be subject to heavy punishment.

Details of 12 households operating the hulāka


Māsau VillageKimāḍī Village
Dhaṃsī Bhaṃḍāri1Maduvā Negi1
Kaluvā Bha[ṇ]ḍāri1Mānuku Negi1
Kamalu Bha[ṇ]ḍāri1Ṭhunākha Kaḍyāla1
Kunda Māsai1Malukha Kaḍyāla1
Khusālu Māsai1Jasodo Sārai1
Duvnu Māsai1
Jivā Sārai1

Friday, the 15th of the bright fortnight of Āśvina in the [Vikrama] era year 1864 (1807 CE). Auspiciousness.


This executive order of King Gīrvāṇayuddha Vikrama Śāha assigns seven families of Māsau and five families of Kimāḍī villages to operate a hulāka post at Māsau. The places mentioned are in Nepal's far west, but their exact locations are yet to be determined. Kimāḍī probably is Kimari, which lies within Giregada VDC of Baitadi district.

The document orders that a team of four porters should take turns manning the post around the clock in order to relay the mail. The porters are to carry lālamoharas and the mail only. Therefore, they are of the kāgate hulākī type.

It is apparent that the hulākī labourers were privileged in comparison to other kinds of forced labourers. The document not only provides some land as a jāgīra for them, it also protects the land currently being used by them by prohibiting it from being confiscated by ambālīs. On top of this, they enjoyed reduction in some taxes and levies and were exempted from other forms of labour obligations.

Two years after this document, in 1809, Bhīmasena Thāpā issued an ordinance (savāla) which mentions the establishment of hulāka posts along the route from Kathmandu up to Yamuna River in the west (see RRC_0006_1015 for this ordinance).


1. A revenue sub-division comprising a number of villages. []

2. A homestead levy collected in the hill districts during the month of Phāguna. See also sāunephāgu. []

3. Probably referring to 20 muris of land. []